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COVID-19 Edition: 加拿大正在发生什么?
来源:TCDSB中国招生办公室  发布日期:2021/1/11  点击次数:1564
COVID-19 Edition: 加拿大正在发生什么?


Mr. Vincent Burzotta

Senior Consultant

TCDSB China Recruitment Office;

Former Superintendent of International Education Program

Toronto Catholic District School Board

Vincent Burzotta先生




“So, if we can get the overwhelming proportion of the population vaccinated by let''''''''s say the end of the second, the beginning of the third quarter by the time we get into mid-fall of 2021, we can be approaching some level of normality.”                                                    ----Dr. Anthony Fauci



COVID-19 Edition: What is happening in Canada?

新型冠状肺炎病毒: 加拿大正在发生什么?

Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines approved for use in Canada


What are the differences between the vaccines?


Until recently most vaccines were built around the theory of injecting the public with a modified version of the existing vaccine so that the body could eventually built an immunity to the virus once it enters the body. Both Pfizer and Moderna have abandoned that approach and have genetically altered a protein that helps cells protect against the virus. No actual COVID-19 virus is used in the vaccine.


So how does it work?


Both vaccines are built on a new technology that uses messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) to trick your body into making tiny copies of the coronavirus s distinctive spike protein, which then teaches your immune system to fight off a future attack.



How are they given?


The Pfizer-BioNTech is 0.3-millilitre dose liquid. Two shots are given 21 days apart. The Moderna dose is 0.5 -millilitres. Two shots are given 28 days apart.

辉瑞生物科技是0.3毫升的液体。两次注射间隔21天。莫德纳剂量为0.5 -毫升。两次注射间隔28天。

How well do they work?


Both vaccines have posted very high efficacy rates based on testing on thousands of people around the world. Pfizer-BioNTech was found to be 95 per cent effective, and Moderna was 94.5 per cent effective. Those percentages were calculated by comparing the number of trial volunteers who got COVID-19 after having been vaccinated versus those who were part of the placebo group.


How are they transported? 


This is the most significant difference between the two vaccines. The Pfizer-BioNTech is more challenging to transport requiring temperatures between -70 and -80 C. Once it s defrosted, it must be used relatively quickly. Canada is investing in new refrigerators able to store the vaccine but they will be limited. The Moderna vials can be shipped at -20 C making them available to many existing refrigeration units.


Are there other vaccines in use in Canada? 


As of January 2021, only 2 vaccines are available but Oxford-AstraZeneca recently received approval in Great Britain. This vaccine has achieved 80% effectiveness with 2 injections 3 months apart. Also, the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine can be shipped at 4 C, which would give it an advantage. It is expected that Health Canada will soon be reviewing this vaccine and approval could be a few weeks away.


What is herd immunity and why is it important? 


Herd immunity is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a sufficient percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, whether through vaccination or previous infections. When this is achieved the likelihood of infection for individuals who lack immunity is drastically reduced.


Dr. Fauci who is the Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases, said this about Herd immunity, I think 75-80% for herd immunity for COVID-19 is a reasonable estimate and most of my colleagues agree.

美国国家过敏和传染病研究所(National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases)所长福奇博士(Dr. Fauci)在谈到群体免疫时表示:“我认为,对于COVID-19的群体免疫,75-80%是一个合理的估计,我的大多数同事也同意这一点。”

This means that once a community (city, province or country) is able to vaccinate its population where 75-80% are immune, that means that life as we knew it before the pandemic can return to normal.



So, when can we get our vaccine injections in Ontario??


The province of Ontario has announced 3 phases for the rollout of vaccines.


Phase 1: Now to April 


The province will focus on health-care workers and the residents of long-term care facilities and retirement homes, which have experienced the worst outcome throughout the pandemic.



The province says it will also offer vaccines to select vulnerable communities during this phase, such as First Nations in Northern Ontario. As of January 1st, 2021, Ontario expects to receive an additional 50,000 doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine in the first week of January, and approximately 80,000 per week after that for the remainder of the month. Ontario has already received its first shipment of the Moderna vaccine, comprising 50,000 doses. The province says it expects to vaccinate approximately 1.1 million people by the end of March.


Phase 2: April to July 


Phase 2 will mark the start of a widespread campaign to administer millions of vaccines every month to a wider range of Ontario''''''''s population. The province anticipates that it will receive 15 million doses of vaccine between April and the end of June, or about five million per month. It''''''''s not yet clear how many doses of each vaccine will be included in that supply. The province plans to set up mass vaccination sites during this phase to administer the doses. Some hospitals will also offer vaccinations, and it is possible that pharmacies could also take part as well.


The head of Ontario''''''''s vaccine distribution task force is retired general Rick Hillier and he says it has not yet decided how it will prioritize access during the start of this phase, though Hillier said essential workers and older Ontarians would likely be first in line.

安大略省疫苗分发工作小组的负责人、退休将军里克希利尔(Rick Hillier)表示,目前还没有决定在这一阶段如何优先发放疫苗,不过希利尔表示,重要工作人员和安大略老年人可能会排在首位。


He said people 75 and older might be prioritized, followed by people aged 50 to 75. Hillier also listed farm workers, police officers and teachers as examples of essential workers who could be prioritized during this phase.


Ontario hopes to vaccinate approximately 8.5 million residents by the end of phase 2, at a rate of about 150,000 residents daily. The province has a population of 14.7 million.


Phase 3: August and beyond 


Hillier referred to the third and final part of the campaign as the "steady state" phase, in which the vaccine will be widely available on an ongoing basis at places like family doctors'''''''' offices and pharmacies.


Hillier said that getting a COVID-19 vaccine during this period should be no harder than getting a shingles or flu vaccine.


If there is a need for renewals or booster shots for any of the vaccines, those will also be administered within this phase.


How will this impact the 2021-22 Academic year?


If we assume that there are only 2 vaccines available in Canada in 2021 then the majority of Canadians will be vaccinated by August 2021. In fact, Prime Minister Trudeau has said that by September 2021 he expects most if not all Canadians will be vaccinated. Canada s population is approximately 36 million people and Ontario s population is just under 15 million. With those numbers and if vaccines continue to be available, it can be reasonably expected that herd immunity could be achieved before August 2021.


What is more encouraging is that the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine will likely be available soon in Canada and other vaccine manufacturers will soon be completing their clinical phase 3 trials. Once completed, approvals should follow in the weeks and months to come.


Canada has signed purchasing deals with 7 COVID-19 vaccine manufactures totaling more than $1 billion dollars. With more vaccines available timelines can change. In fact, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says that it s possible that Canada will be able to accelerate its timeline for vaccinating all Canadians who want to be against COVID-19. If that is true then herd immunity can be achieved much sooner than August.


In short it is reasonable to assume that the 2021-22 Academic year will be as close to normal as possible. However, it is also safe to assume that safety measures will be something we will have to learn to live with.


January 2021



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